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英语基础语法汇总:句子的种类

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英语基础语法汇总:句子的种类

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  13. 句子的种类

  (一)按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。

  1) 陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。

  Light travels faster than sound. 光比声速度快。  (说明事实)

  The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。

  (说明看法)

  2) 疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:

  a. 一般疑问句(General Questions):

  Can you finish the work in time?

  你能按时完成工作吗?

  b. 特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions):

  Where do you live? 你住那儿?

  How do you know that? 你怎么知道那件事?

  c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):

  Do you want tea or coffee?

  你是要茶还是要咖啡?

  d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):

  He doesn't know her, does he?

  他不认识她,对不对?

  3) 祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如:

  Sit down, please. 请坐。

  Don't be nervous! 别紧张!

  4) 感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如:

  What good news it is! 多好的消息啊!

  (二)句子按其结构可以分为以下三类:

  1) 简单句(Simple Sentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句,例如:

  She is fond of collecting stamps.  她喜欢集邮。

  (主)  (谓)

  2) 并列句(Compound Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接,例如:

  The food was good, but he had little appetite.

  (主)   (谓)      (主)(谓)

  食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。

  3) 复合句(Complex Sentences):包含一个主句从句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导,例如:

  The film had begun when we got to the cinema.

  主句       从句

  我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。

  (三)基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns):英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的:

  1)主 + 动(SV)例如:

  I work. 我工作。

  2)主 + 动 + 表(SVP)例如:

  John is busy. 约翰忙。

  3)主 + 动 + 宾(SVO)例如:

  She studies English. 她学英语。

  4)主 + 动 + 宾 + 补(SVOC)例如:

  Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。

  5)主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾(SVOiOd)例如:

  My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。

  .1 祈使句结构

  祈使句用以表达命令,要求,请求,劝告等。

  1) 祈使句有两种类型,一种是以动词原形开头,在动词原形之前加do (但只限于省略第二人称主语的句子)。

  Take this seat.

  Do be careful.

  否定结构:

  Don't move.

  Don't be late.

  2) 第二种祈使句以let开头。

  Let 的反意疑问句

  a. Let's 包括说话者

  Let's have another try,shall we / shan't we?

  = Shall we have another try?

  b. Let us 不包括说话者

  Let us have another try,will you / won't you?

  = Will you please let us have another try?

  否定结构:

  Let's not talk of that matter.

  Let us not talk of that matter.

  13.2 感叹句结构

  感叹句通常有what, how引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜 悦、等感情。

  what修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,感叹句结构主要有以下几种:

  掌握它的搭配,即掌握了感叹句的重点。

  How +形容词+ a +名词+       陈述语序

  How+形容词或副词+         陈述语序

  What +名词+            陈述语序

  What+a+形容词+名词+        陈述语序

  What+ 形容词+复数名词+       陈述语序

  What+ 形容词+不可数名词+      陈述语序

  How clever a boy he is!

  How lovely the baby is!

  What noise they are making!

  What a clever boy he is!

  What wonderful ideas (we have)!

  What cold weather it is!

  感叹句的省略形式为:

  What a clever boy (he is)!

  典型例题

  1)___ food you've cooked!

  A. How a nice  B. What a nice  C. How nice  D. What nice

  答案D. 由于How 修饰形容词,副词;what修饰名词。且food为不可数名词,因此A,B 排除。C How + adj. 后面不能再加名词,因此只有D正确,其句型为What + adj. +n. (不可数)

  2)___terrible weather we've been having these days!

  A. What  B. What a  C. How  D. How a

  答案A. weather为不可数名词,B,D排除。C为how + adj. 后面不应有名词。只有A,符合句型What +形容词+不可数名词。

  3) --- _____ I had!

  --- You really suffered a lot.

  A. What a time  B. What time   C. How a time   D. how time

  答案A. 感叹句分两类:

  1:What + n.+主谓部分

  2:How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。本题属第一种,但省略了bad,相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。

  13.3 强调句结构

  常考的强调句结构是it 引导的句子。

  It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分。

  此结构强调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。

  It is from the sun that we get light and heat.

  It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs.

  典型例题

  1) It was last night ___ I see the comet.

  A. the time B. when  C. that  D. which

  答案C. 强调句的结构是: It +be +强调部分 + that (who) + 主谓句。 强调句的连词只有两个,that和who。当强调的部分是人,且为句子的主语时,才用 "who",其余用that。

  原句: My father did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.

  强调主语: It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.

  强调宾语: It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening.

  强调时间: It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab. (注意不用when)

  强调地点: It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening.

  2)It is ten years ___ Miss Green returned to Canada.

  A. that B. when  C. since  D. as

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